Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation 
The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. As a result, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial information for the interim periods presented. The results of operations of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected for the fiscal year. These consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on March 9, 2020.
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and all of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Net Loss Per Common Share Net Loss Per Common ShareIn periods when losses are reported, the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding excludes common stock equivalents because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which introduced an expected credit loss model for the impairment of financial assets measured at amortized cost basis and added Topic 326 to the FASB ASC. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-11, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. The amendments to ASU 2019-11 clarify, correct and make improvements to Topic 326. ASU 2016-13 as well as the updates in ASU 2019-11 are effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. This guidance modifies, removes, and adds certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. This ASU is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This guidance removes certain exceptions for recognizing deferred taxes for investments, performing intraperiod allocation and calculating income taxes in interim periods. It also adds guidance to reduce complexity in certain areas, including recognizing deferred taxes for tax goodwill and allocating taxes to members of a consolidated group. This ASU is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, and early adoption is permitted. The Company elected to early adopt the new standard during the first quarter of 2020. Such adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement.

Other recently issued accounting pronouncements did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company’s present or future financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition

All revenue is recognized when the performance obligations under a contract are satisfied. Product sales are recognized when the products are shipped and title passes to independent members. Product sales to members are made pursuant to a member agreement that provides for transfer of both title and risk of loss upon the Company’s delivery to the carrier that completes delivery to the members, which is commonly referred to as “F.O.B. Shipping Point.” The Company’s sales arrangements do not contain right of inspection or customer acceptance provisions other than general rights of return. These contracts are generally short-term in nature.
Actual product returns are recorded as a reduction to net sales. The Company estimates and accrues a reserve for product returns based on its return policies and historical experience. The reserve is based upon the return policy of each country, which varies from 14 days to one year, and their historical return rates, which range from 1% to 9% of sales.  Sales returns were 2% of sales for each of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.  No material changes in estimates have been recognized during the periods presented. See Note 3 for additional information.
The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling activities performed after title has passed to members as a fulfillment cost, and accrues for the costs of shipping and handling if revenue is recognized before the contractually obligated shipping and handling activities occurs. Shipping charges billed to members are included in net sales. Costs associated with shipments are included in cost of sales. Event and training revenue is deferred and recognized as the event or training occurs. Costs of events and member training are included within selling, general and administrative expenses.

Various taxes on the sale of products to members are collected by the Company as an agent and remitted to the respective taxing authority. These taxes are presented on a net basis and recorded as a liability until remitted to the respective taxing authority.

Deferred Revenue

The Company primarily receives payment by credit card at the time members place orders. Amounts received for unshipped product are considered a contract liability and are recorded as deferred revenue. The decrease in deferred revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2020 is primarily due to $2.4 million of revenue recognized during the quarter that was included in deferred revenue as of December 31, 2019 offset by $2.0 million of cash payments received for unshipped product during the quarter. See Note 3 for additional information.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company sells products to a member network that operates in a seamless manner from market to market, except for the Chinese market where it sells to consumers through an e-commerce retail platform and the Russia and Kazakhstan market where the Company operates through an engagement of a third-party service provider. See Note 10 for revenue by market information.
Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations

The Company’s contracts with customers may include multiple performance obligations. For such arrangements, the Company allocates revenues to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. The Company generally determines standalone selling prices based on the prices charged for individual products to similar customers.

Practical Expedients

The Company generally expenses sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are recorded in commissions expense.
The Company does not provide certain disclosures about unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts with an original expected length of one year or less.

No single market other than Hong Kong had net sales greater than 10% of total net sales. Sales are made to the Company’s members and no single customer accounted for 10% or more of net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019. However, the Company’s business model can result in a concentration of sales to several different members and their network of members. Although no single member accounted for 10% or more of net sales, the loss of a key member or that member’s network could have an adverse effect on the Company’s net sales and financial results.
Cash and Cash Equivalents As of March 31, 2020, cash and cash equivalents include the Company’s investments in municipal and corporate debt securities, money market funds, and time deposits. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased and have insignificant interest rate risk to be cash equivalents.  Debt securities classified as cash equivalents are required to be accounted for in accordance with the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 320, Investments - Debt and Equity Securities. As such, the Company determined its investments in debt securities held at March 31, 2020 should be classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in stockholders’ equity. The cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and discounts to maturity. This amortization is included in other income. Realized gains and losses, as well as interest income, are also included in other income. The fair values of securities are based on quoted market prices to the extent available or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing market observable inputs.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and accounts payable, approximate fair value because of their short maturities. The carrying amount of the noncurrent restricted cash approximates fair value since, absent the restrictions, the underlying assets would be included in cash and cash equivalents.
Accounting standards permit companies, at their option, to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value.  The Company has elected to not fair value existing eligible items.
FASB Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements, establishes a fair value hierarchy that requires the use of observable market data, when available, and prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value in the following categories:
Level 1: Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data.