Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Revenue Recognition [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition

All revenue is recognized when the performance obligations under a contract are satisfied. Product sales are recognized when the products are shipped and title passes to independent members. Product sales to members are made pursuant to a member agreement that provides for transfer of both title and risk of loss upon the Company’s delivery to the carrier that completes delivery to the members, which is commonly referred to as “F.O.B. Shipping Point.” The Company’s sales arrangements do not contain right of inspection or customer acceptance provisions other than general rights of return. These contracts are generally short-term in nature.
Actual product returns are recorded as a reduction to net sales. The Company estimates and accrues a reserve for product returns based on its return policies and historical experience. The reserve is based upon the return policy of each country, which varies from 14 days to one year, and their historical return rates, which range from 1% to 9% of sales.  Sales returns were 2% of sales for each of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.  No material changes in estimates have been recognized during the periods presented. See Note 3 for additional information.
The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling activities performed after title has passed to members as a fulfillment cost, and accrues for the costs of shipping and handling if revenue is recognized before the contractually obligated shipping and handling activities occurs. Shipping charges billed to members are included in net sales. Costs associated with shipments are included in cost of sales. Event and training revenue is deferred and recognized as the event or training occurs. Costs of events and member training are included within selling, general and administrative expenses.

Various taxes on the sale of products to members are collected by the Company as an agent and remitted to the respective taxing authority. These taxes are presented on a net basis and recorded as a liability until remitted to the respective taxing authority.

Deferred Revenue

The Company primarily receives payment by credit card at the time members place orders. Amounts received for unshipped product are considered a contract liability and are recorded as deferred revenue. The decrease in deferred revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2020 is primarily due to $2.4 million of revenue recognized during the quarter that was included in deferred revenue as of December 31, 2019 offset by $2.0 million of cash payments received for unshipped product during the quarter. See Note 3 for additional information.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company sells products to a member network that operates in a seamless manner from market to market, except for the Chinese market where it sells to consumers through an e-commerce retail platform and the Russia and Kazakhstan market where the Company operates through an engagement of a third-party service provider. See Note 10 for revenue by market information.
The Company’s net sales by product and service are as follows (in thousands):
  Three Months Ended March 31,
  2020 2019
Product sales $ 14,011    $ 18,523   
Freight and other 1,084    1,500   
Less: sales returns (147)   (695)  
Total net sales $ 14,948    $ 19,328   


No single market other than Hong Kong had net sales greater than 10% of total net sales. Sales are made to the Company’s members and no single customer accounted for 10% or more of net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019. However, the Company’s business model can result in a concentration of sales to several different members and their network of members. Although no single member accounted for 10% or more of net sales, the loss of a key member or that member’s network could have an adverse effect on the Company’s net sales and financial results.

Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations

The Company’s contracts with customers may include multiple performance obligations. For such arrangements, the Company allocates revenues to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. The Company generally determines standalone selling prices based on the prices charged for individual products to similar customers.

Practical Expedients

The Company generally expenses sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are recorded in commissions expense.
The Company does not provide certain disclosures about unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts with an original expected length of one year or less.