Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation 
The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. As a result, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial information for the interim periods presented. The results of operations of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected for the fiscal year. These consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on April 26, 2019.

Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and all of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Certain prior year amounts in the balance sheet have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB established Topic 842, Leases, by issuing ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize the rights and obligations created by leases on the balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements, ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, and ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases are classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted the new standard using the effective date as its date of initial application. The new standard provided a number of optional practical expedients in transition. The Company elected the “package of practical expedients”, which permits entities not to reassess under the new lease standard prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. Upon adoption, the Company recognized operating lease liabilities on its balance sheet for $4.5 million, with corresponding ROU assets of the same amount based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. See Note 7 for additional information.

In August 2018, the SEC issued Release No. 33-10532 that amends and clarifies certain financial reporting requirements. The principal change to the Company’s financial reporting is the requirement to disclose in interim periods on Form 10-Q the changes in stockholder’s equity as prescribed by Rule 3-04 of Regulation S-X.

Other recently issued accounting pronouncements did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company’s present or future financial statements.
Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition

All revenue is recognized when the performance obligations under a contract are satisfied. Product sales are recognized when the products are shipped and title passes to independent members. Product sales to members are made pursuant to a member agreement that provides for transfer of both title and risk of loss upon the Company’s delivery to the carrier that completes delivery to the members, which is commonly referred to as “F.O.B. Shipping Point.” The Company’s sales arrangements do not contain right of inspection or customer acceptance provisions other than general rights of return. These contracts are generally short-term in nature.
Actual product returns are recorded as a reduction to net sales. The Company estimates and accrues a reserve for product returns based on its return policies and historical experience. The reserve is based upon the return policy of each country, which varies from 14 days to one year, and their historical return rates, which range from 1% to 5% of sales.  Sales returns were 3% and 2% of sales for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.  No material changes in estimates have been recognized during the periods presented. See Note 5 for additional information.
The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling activities performed after title has passed to members as a fulfillment cost, and accrues for the costs of shipping and handling if revenue is recognized before the contractually obligated shipping and handling activities occurs. Shipping charges billed to members are included in net sales. Costs associated with shipments are included in cost of sales. Event and training revenue is deferred and recognized as the event or training occurs. Costs of events and member training are included within selling, general and administrative expenses.

Various taxes on the sale of products to members are collected by the Company as an agent and remitted to the respective taxing authority. These taxes are presented on a net basis and recorded as a liability until remitted to the respective taxing authority.

Deferred Revenue

The Company primarily receives payment by credit card at the time members place orders. Amounts received for unshipped product are considered a contract liability and are recorded as deferred revenue. The decrease in deferred revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2019 is primarily due to $1.5 million of revenue recognized during the quarter that was included in deferred revenue as of March 31, 2019 offset by $1.2 million of cash payments received for unshipped product during the second quarter. See Note 4 for additional information.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company sells products to a member network that operates in a seamless manner from market to market, except for the Chinese market where it sells to consumers through an e-commerce retail platform and the Russia and Kazakhstan market where the Company operates through an engagement of a third-party service provider.

Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations

The Company’s contracts with customers may include multiple performance obligations. For such arrangements, the Company allocates revenues to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. The Company generally determines standalone selling prices based on the prices charged for individual products to similar customers.

Practical Expedients

The Company generally expenses sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are recorded in commissions expense.

The Company does not provide certain disclosures about unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts with an original expected length of one year or less.

No single market other than Hong Kong had net sales greater than 10% of total net sales. Sales are made to the Company’s members and no single customer accounted for 10% or more of net sales for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018. However, the Company’s business model can result in a concentration of sales to several different members and their network of members. Although no single member accounted for 10% or more of net sales, the loss of a key member or that member’s network could have an adverse effect on the Company’s net sales and financial results.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share

Diluted net income (loss) per common share is determined using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents. The dilutive effect of non-vested restricted stock is reflected by application of the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, the amount of compensation cost for future service that the Company has not yet recognized and the amount of tax benefit that would be recorded in additional paid-in capital when the award becomes deductible are assumed to be used to repurchase shares.
Cash and Cash Equivalents

As of June 30, 2019, cash and cash equivalents include the Company’s investments in debt securities, comprising municipal notes and bonds and corporate debt, commercial paper, money market funds and time deposits. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased and have insignificant interest rate risk to be cash equivalents.  Debt securities classified as cash equivalents are required to be accounted for in accordance with the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 320, Investments - Debt and Equity Securities. As such, the Company determined its investments in debt securities held at June 30, 2019 should be classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity. The cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and discounts to maturity. This amortization is included in other income. Realized gains and losses, as well as interest income, are also included in other income. The fair values of securities are based on quoted market prices.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Financial institution instruments include instruments issued or managed by financial institutions such as money market fund deposits and time deposits.

FASB Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements, establishes a fair value hierarchy that requires the use of observable market data, when available, and prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value in the following categories:

Level 1: Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data.
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable, approximate fair value because of their short maturities. The carrying amount of the noncurrent restricted cash approximates fair value since, absent the restrictions, the underlying assets would be included in cash and cash equivalents.
Accounting standards permit companies, at their option, to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value.  The Company has elected to not fair value existing eligible items.